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                                                                   Stephanie from Tennessee

       What are "push-in" and "pull-out" reading?

                                        "What is a push-in or pull-out reading intervention
                                      program for students in school?  Any data to suggest
                                      this is effective for students?  Does this stigmatize

     That's a great question.  Both the push-in and the pull-out intervention programs deal with where a child receives help with reading, and they also can deal with who delivers the services.  Both methods can be effective, and what determines which one is best depends on the specific needs of the student.  Let's take a closer look...
     In a push-in intervention program, the person who is going to help the child comes into the classroom to work with an individual or a small group. The type of child this works best for is 1) one who is able to concentrate when other things are going on in the classroom; 2) one who
isn't hugely behind his or her peers.  A specialist, tutor, or teaching assistant usually delivers this type of service.
     In a pull-out intervention program, the child receives reading help outside of his or her classroom.  This type of intervention is the best for children who 1) are easily distractible,
2) are considerably behind their peers, and a private setting allows them to work on materials at
their level without a chance of feeling embarrassed by comparing themselves with other classmates.  Usually a reading specialist teaches these children, but that's not always the case.
   That said, the type of intervention program a school uses can be affected by the space available and the support staff available, so they design the very best program that they can given what they have. Research suggests that both programs can be very effective, depending on the quality of the teaching, parent follow-through with homework practice if there is any, and sensitivity to the progress of the child.  Neither of these need be stigmatizing. 
    The best research on this can be found when exploring the current move in schools toward an all-school intervention model called RTI...Response to Intervention.  Just Google "RTI" if you'd like to read any of these studies.  This program is being adopted by many school
districts as a guide for delivering services in multiple ways to best meet every child's needs, including push-in, and pull-out.